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The VertiPaq Engine in DAX

Understanding segmentation and partitioning

As you might imagine, compressing a table of several billion rows in a single step would be extremely memory-intensive and time-consuming. In fact, the table is not processed as a whole. Instead, during processing SSAS reads it into segments that, by default, contain 8 million rows each. When a segment is completely read, the engine starts to compress it while, in the meantime, it reads the next segment.

You can configure the segment size on SSAS using the DefaultSegmentRowCount entry in the configuration file of the service (or in the server properties in Management Studio). In Power Pivot, the segment size has a fixed value of 1 million rows. You cannot change it, because Power Pivot is optimized for smaller datasets.

Segmentation is important for several reasons:

  • When querying a table, VertiPaq uses the segments as the basis for parallelism: it uses one core per segment when scanning a column. By default, SSAS always uses one single thread to scan a table with 8 million rows or less. You start observing parallelism in action only on much larger tables.
  • The larger the segment, the better the compression. Having the option of analyzing more rows in a single compression step, VertiPaq can achieve better compression levels. On very large tables, it is important to test different segment sizes and measure the memory usage, so to achieve optimal compression. Keep in mind that increasing the segment size can negatively affect processing time: the larger the segment, the slower the processing.
  • Although the dictionary is global to the table, bit-sizing happens at the segment level. Thus, if a column has 1,000 distinct values but, in a specific segment, only two of them are used, then that column will be compressed to a single bit for that segment.
  • If segments are too small, then the parallelism at query time is increased. This is not always a good thing. In fact, while it is true that scanning the column is faster, VertiPaq needs more time at the end of the scan to aggregate partial results computed by the different threads. If a partition is too small, then the time required for managing task switching and final aggregation is more than the time needed to scan the data, with a negative impact to the overall query performance.

During processing, the first segment has a special treatment if the table has only one partition. In fact, the first segment can be larger than DefaultSegmentRowCount. VertiPaq reads twice the size of DefaultSegmentRowCount and starts to segment a table only if it contains more rows (but remember that this does not apply to a table with more than one partition). Therefore, a table with 10 million rows will be stored as a single segment, whereas a table with 20 million rows will use three segments: two containing 8 million rows, and one with only 4 million rows.

Segments cannot exceed the partition size. If you have a partitioning schema on your model that creates partitions of only 1 million rows, then all of your segments will be smaller than 1 million rows (namely, they will be same as the partition size). Over-partitioning of tables is a very common mistake of naïve VertiPaq users: remember that creating too many small partitions can only lower the performance.