Managing TCP/IP Networking in Windows Server 2008
- By William Stanek
Installing TCP/IP Networking
Configuring TCP/IP Networking
Managing Network Connections
Troubleshooting and Testing Network Settings
As an administrator, you enable networked computers to communicate by using the basic networking protocols built into Windows Server 2008. The key protocol you’ll use is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP is actually a collection of protocols and services used for communicating over a network. It’s the primary protocol used for internetwork communications. Compared to configuring other networking protocols, configuring TCP/IP communications is fairly complicated, but TCP/IP is the most versatile protocol available.
Installing TCP/IP Networking
If you want to install networking on a computer, you must install TCP/IP networking and a network adapter. Windows Server 2008 uses TCP/IP as the default wide area network (WAN) protocol. Normally, networking is installed during Windows Server 2008 setup. You can also install TCP/IP networking through local area connection properties. Although name resolution can be performed using DNS, WINS, or LLMNR, the preferred technique on Windows Server 2008 domains is DNS.
Preparing for Installation of TCP/IP Networking
Before you can configure TCP/IP networking on individual computers, you need the following information:
Domain name The name of the domain in which the computer will be located. This can be a parent or a child domain.
IP address type, value, or both The IP address information to assign to the computer, which can include both IPv4 and IPv6 addressing details.
Subnet mask The subnet mask for the IPv4 network to which the computer is attached.
Subnet prefix length The subnet prefix length for the IPv6 network to which the computer is attached.
Default gateway address The address of the router or routers that will function as the computer’s gateway.
DNS server address The address of the DNS server or servers that provide DNS name resolution services on the network.
WINS server address The address of the WINS server or servers that provide WINS name resolution services on the network.
If you are unsure of any of this information, you should ask the IT staff. In many cases, even if you are an administrator, there is a specific person you must ask for the IP address setup that should be used. Typically, this is your organization’s network administrator and it is that person’s job to maintain the spreadsheet or database that shows how IP addresses are assigned within the organization.
If no one in your organization has this role yet, this role should be assigned to someone or jointly managed to ensure that IP addresses are assigned following a specific plan. The plan should detail the following information:
The address ranges that are reserved for network equipment and hardware and which individual IP addresses in this range are currently in use
The address ranges that are reserved for DHCP and as such cannot be assigned using a static IP address
The address ranges that are for static IP addresses and which individual IP addresses in this range are currently in use
Installing Network Adapters
Network adapters are hardware devices that are used to communicate on networks. You can install and configure network adapters by following these steps:
Configure the network adapter following the manufacturer’s instructions. For example, you might need to use the software provided by the manufacturer to modify the Interrupt setting or the Port setting of the adapter.
If installing an internal network interface card, shut down the computer, unplug it, and install the adapter card in the appropriate slot on the computer. When you’re finished, plug the computer in and start it.
Windows Server 2008 should detect the new adapter during startup. If you have a separate driver disc for the adapter, insert it now. Otherwise, you might be prompted to insert a driver disc.
If Windows Server 2008 doesn’t detect the adapter automatically, follow the installation instructions in Chapter 8, “Managing and Troubleshooting Hardware.”
If networking services aren’t installed on the system, install them as described in the next section.
Installing Networking Services (TCP/IP)
If you’re installing TCP/IP after installing Windows Server 2008, log on to the computer using an account with Administrator privileges and then follow these steps:
Click Start and then click Network. In Network Explorer, click Network And Sharing Center on the toolbar.
In Network And Sharing Center, click Manage Network Connections.
In Network Connections, right-click the connection you want to work with and then select Properties.
This displays the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 21-1.
Figure 21-1 Install and configure TCP/IP in the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.
If Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6), Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), or both aren’t shown in the list of installed components, you’ll need to install them. Click Install. Select Protocol, and then click Add. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box, select the protocol to install and then click OK. If you are installing both TCP/IPv6 and TCP/IPv4, repeat this procedure for each protocol.
In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, make sure that the following are selected as appropriate: Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6), Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), or both. Then click OK.
As necessary, follow the instructions in the next section for configuring local area connections for the computer.