Understanding the IPv6 Header
- Structure of an IPv6 Packet
- IPv4 Header
- IPv6 Header
- IPv6 Extension Headers
- IPv6 MTU
- Upper-Layer Checksums
- Testing for Understanding
IPv6 Extension Headers
The IPv4 header includes all options. Therefore, each intermediate router must check for their existence and process them when present. This can cause performance degradation in the forwarding of IPv4 packets. With IPv6, delivery and forwarding options are moved to extension headers. The only extension header that must be processed at each intermediate router is the Hop-by-Hop Options extension header. This increases IPv6 header processing speed and improves the performance of forwarding IPv6 packets.
RFC 2460 specifies that the following IPv6 extension headers must be supported by all IPv6 nodes:
Hop-by-Hop Options header
Destination Options header
Encapsulating Security Payload header
With the exception of the Authentication header and Encapsulating Security Payload header, all the IPv6 extension headers in the preceding list are defined in RFC 2460.
In a typical IPv6 packet, no extension headers are present. If special handling is required by either intermediate routers or the destination, the sending host adds one or more extension headers.
Each extension header must fall on a 64-bit (8-byte) boundary. Extension headers of a fixed size must be an integral multiple of 8 bytes. Extension headers of variable size contain a Header Extension Length field and must use padding as needed to ensure that their size is an integral multiple of 8 bytes.
The Next Header field in the IPv6 header and zero or more extension headers form a chain of pointers. Each pointer indicates the type of header that comes after the immediate header until the upper-layer protocol is ultimately identified. Figure 4-4 shows the chain of pointers formed by the Next Header field for various IPv6 packets.
Figure 4-4 The chain of pointers formed by the Next Header field.
If an extension header contains an unrecognized or improper value of the Next Header field, the node discards the packet and sends an ICMP Parameter Problem-Unrecognized Next Header Type Encountered message to the packet source. An example of an improper value for any extension header is 0, because the Hop-by-Hop Options header must always be immediately after the IPv6 header.
Extension Headers Order
Extension headers are processed in the order in which they are present. Because the only extension header that is processed by every node on the path is the Hop-by-Hop Options header, it must be first. Similar rules apply for other extension headers. In RFC 2460, it is recommended that extension headers be placed after the IPv6 header in the following order:
Hop-by-Hop Options header
Destination Options header (for intermediate destinations when the Routing header is present)
Encapsulating Security Payload header
Destination Options header (for the final destination)
Hop-by-Hop Options Header
The Hop-by-Hop Options header is used to specify delivery parameters at each hop on the path to the destination. It is identified by the value of 0 in the IPv6 header’s Next Header field. Figure 4-5 shows the structure of the Hop-by-Hop Options header.
Figure 4-5 The structure of the Hop-by-Hop Options header.
The Hop-by-Hop Options header consists of a Next Header field, a Header Extension Length field, and an Options field that contains one or more options. The value of the Header Extension Length field is the number of 8-byte blocks in the Hop-by-Hop Options extension header, not including the first 8 bytes. Therefore, for an 8-byte Hop-by-Hop Options header, the value of the Header Extension Length field is 0. Padding options are used to ensure 8-byte boundaries.
An option is a set of fields that either describes a specific characteristic of the packet delivery or provides padding. Options are sent in the Hop-by-Hop Options header and Destination Options header (described later in this chapter). Each option is encoded in the type-length-value (TLV) format that is commonly used in TCP/IP protocols. Figure 4-6 shows the structure of an option.
Figure 4-6 The structure of an option.
The Option Type field both identifies the option and determines the way it is handled by the processing node. The Option Length field indicates the number of bytes in the option, not including the Option Type and Option Length fields. The option data is the specific data associated with the option.
An option might have an alignment requirement to ensure that specific fields within the option fall on desired boundaries. For example, it is easier to process an IPv6 address if it falls on an 8-byte boundary. Alignment requirements are expressed by using the notation xn + y, indicating that the option must begin at a byte boundary equal to an integral multiple of x bytes plus y bytes from the start of the header. For example, the alignment requirement 4n + 2 indicates that the option must begin at a byte boundary of (an integral multiple of 4 bytes) + 2 bytes. In other words, the option must begin at the byte boundary of 6, 10, 14, and so on, relative to the start of the Hop-by-Hop Options or Destination Options headers. To accommodate alignment requirements, padding typically appears before an option and between each option when multiple options are present.
Option Type Field
Within the Option Type field, the two high-order bits indicate how the option is handled when the node processing the option does not recognize the option type. Table 4-3 lists the defined values of these two bits and their purpose.
Table 4-3. Values of the Two High-Order Bits in the Option Type Field
Skip the option.
Silently discard the packet.
Discard the packet, and send an ICMPv6 Parameter Problem message to the sender if the Destination Address field in the IPv6 header is a unicast or multicast address.
Discard the packet, and send an ICMPv6 Parameter Problem message to the sender if the Destination Address field in the IPv6 header is not a multicast address.
The third-highest-order bit of the Option Type indicates whether the option data can change (= 1) or not change (= 0) in the path to the destination.
The Pad1 option is defined in RFC 2460. It is used to insert a single byte of padding so that the Hop-by-Hop Options or Destination Options headers fall on 8-byte boundaries and to accommodate the alignment requirements of options. The Pad1 option has no alignment requirements. Figure 4-7 shows the Pad1 option.
Figure 4-7 The structure of the Pad1 option.
The Pad1 option consists of a single byte; Option Type is set to 0, and it has no length or value fields. With Option Type set to 0, the option is skipped if not recognized, and it is not allowed to change in transit.
The PadN option is defined in RFC 2460. It is used to insert two or more bytes of padding so that the Hop-by-Hop Options or Destination Options headers fall on 8-byte boundaries and to accommodate the alignment requirements of options. The PadN option has no alignment requirements. Figure 4-8 shows the PadN option.
Figure 4-8 The structure of the PadN option.
The PadN option consists of the Option Type field (set to 1), the Length field (set to the number of padding bytes present), and 0 or more bytes of padding. With the Option Type field set to 1, the option is skipped if not recognized, and it is not allowed to change in transit.
Jumbo Payload Option
The Jumbo Payload option is defined in RFC 2675. It is used to indicate a payload size that is greater than 65,535 bytes. The Jumbo Payload option has the alignment requirement of 4n + 2. Figure 4-9 shows the Jumbo Payload option.
Figure 4-9 The structure of the Jumbo Payload option.
With the Jumbo Payload option, the Payload Length field in the IPv6 header no longer indicates the size of the IPv6 packet payload. Instead, the Jumbo Payload Length field in the Jumbo Payload option indicates the size, in bytes, of the IPv6 packet payload. With a 32-bit Jumbo Payload Length field, payload sizes of up to 4,294,967,295 bytes can be indicated. An IPv6 packet with a payload size greater than 65,535 bytes is known as a jumbogram. With the Option Type field set to 194 (0xC2 hexadecimal, binary 11000010), the packet is discarded and an ICMPv6 Parameter Problem message is sent if the option is not recognized and the destination address is not a multicast address; and the option is not allowed to change in transit.
The IPv6 protocol in Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista supports incoming jumbograms at the IPv6 layer. However, there is no support in UDP or TCP for sending or receiving jumbograms.
Router Alert Option
The Router Alert option (Option Type 5) is defined in RFC 2711 and is used to indicate to a router that the contents of the packet require additional processing. The Router Alert option has the alignment requirement of 2n + 0. Figure 4-10 shows the structure of the Router Alert option.
Figure 4-10 The structure of the Router Alert option.
The Router Alert option is used for Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) and the Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP). With the Option Type field set to 5, the option is skipped if not recognized, and it is not allowed to change in transit.
Destination Options Header
The Destination Options header is used to specify packet delivery parameters for either intermediate destinations or the final destination. This header is identified by the value of 60 in the previous header’s Next Header field. The Destination Options header has the same structure as the Hop-by-Hop Options header, as shown in Figure 4-11.
Figure 4-11 The structure of the Destination Options header.
The Destination Options header is used in two ways:
If a Routing header is present, it specifies delivery or processing options at each intermediate destination. In this case, the Destination Options header occurs before the Routing header.
If no Routing header is present or if this header occurs after the Routing header, this header specifies delivery or processing options at the final destination.
An example of a destination option is the Home Address destination option for Mobile IPv6.
Home Address Option
The Home Address destination option (Option Type 201) is defined in RFC 6275 and is used to indicate the home address of the mobile node. The home address is an address assigned to the mobile node when it is attached to the home link and through which the mobile node is always reachable, regardless of its location on an IPv6 network. For information about when the Home Address option is sent, see Appendix G, "Mobile IPv6." The Home Address option has the alignment requirement of 8n + 6. Figure 4-12 shows the structure of the Home Address option.
Figure 4-12 The structure of the Home Address option.
Following is a description of the fields in the Home Address option:
Option Type With the Option Type field set to 201 (0xC9 hexadecimal, 11001001 binary), the packet is discarded and an ICMPv6 Parameter Problem message is sent if the option is not recognized and the destination address is not a multicast address; and the option is not allowed to change in transit.
Option Length The Option Length field indicates the length of the option in bytes, not including the Option Type and Option Length fields. Because the only field past the Option Length field is the Home Address field to store an IPv6 address, the Option Length field is set to 16.
Home Address The Home Address field indicates the home address of the mobile node. The size of this field is 128 bits.
For an example of the Home Address option in the Destination Options header, see the Network Monitor Capture 04_03 in the companion content for this book.
Summary of Option Types
Table 4-4 lists the different option types for options in Hop-by-Hop Options and Destination Options headers.
Table 4-4. Option Types
Option and Where It Is Used
Pad1 option: Hop-by-Hop and Destination Options headers
PadN option: Hop-by-Hop and Destination Options headers
Jumbo Payload option: Hop-by-Hop Options header
4n + 2
Router Alert option: Hop-by-Hop Options header
2n + 0
Home Address option: Destination Options header
IPv4 defines strict source routing, in which each intermediate destination must be only one hop away, and loose source routing, in which each intermediate destination can be one or more hops away. IPv6 source nodes can use the Routing header to specify a source route, which is a list of intermediate destinations for the packet to travel to on its path to the final destination. The Routing header is identified by the value of 43 in the previous header’s Next Header field. Figure 4-13 shows the structure of the Routing header.
Figure 4-13 The structure of the Routing header.
The Routing header consists of a Next Header field, a Header Extension Length field (defined in the same way as the Hop-by-Hop Options extension header), a Routing Type field, a Segments Left field that indicates the number of intermediate destinations that are still to be visited, and routing type-specific data.
The Fragment header is used for IPv6 fragmentation and reassembly services. This header is identified by the value of 44 in the previous header’s Next Header field. Figure 4-14 shows the structure of the Fragment header.
Figure 4-14 The structure of the Fragment header.
The Fragment header includes a Next Header field, a 13-bit Fragment Offset field, a More Fragments flag, and a 32-bit Identification field. The Fragment Offset, More Fragments flag, and Identification fields are used in the same way as the corresponding fields in the IPv4 header. Because the use of the Fragment Offset field is defined for 8-byte fragment blocks, the Fragment header cannot be used for jumbograms. The maximum number that can be expressed with the 13-bit Fragment Offset field is 8191. Therefore, Fragment Offset can be used to indicate only a fragment data starting position of up to 8191 x 8, or 65,528.
In IPv6, only source nodes can fragment payloads. If the payload submitted by the upper-layer protocol is larger than the link or path MTU, IPv6 fragments the payload at the source and uses the Fragment header to provide reassembly information. An IPv6 router will never fragment an IPv6 packet being forwarded.
Because the IPv6 internetwork does not transparently fragment payloads, data sent from applications that do not have an awareness of the destination path MTU cannot sense when data needing fragmentation by the source is discarded by IPv6 routers. This can be a problem for unicast or multicast traffic sent as a UDP message or other types of message streams that do not use TCP.
IPv6 Fragmentation Process
When an IPv6 packet is fragmented, it is initially divided into unfragmentable and fragmentable parts:
The unfragmentable part of the original IPv6 packet must be processed by intermediate nodes between the fragmenting node and the destination. This part consists of the IPv6 header, the Hop-by-Hop Options header, the Destination Options header for intermediate destinations, and the Routing header.
The fragmentable part of the original IPv6 packet must be processed only at the final destination node. This part consists of the Authentication header, the Encapsulating Security Payload header, the Destination Options header for the final destination, and the upper-layer PDU.
Next, the IPv6 fragment packets are formed. Each fragment packet consists of the unfragmentable part, a fragment header, and a portion of the fragmentable part. Figure 4-15 shows the IPv6 fragmentation process for a packet divided into three fragments.
Figure 4-15 The IPv6 fragmentation process.
In each fragment, the Next Header field in the Fragment header indicates the first header or the upper-layer protocol in the original fragmentable part. The Fragment Offset field in the Fragment header indicates the offset, in 8-byte units known as fragment blocks, of this fragment relative to the original payload. The More Fragments flag is set on all fragment packets except the last fragment packet. All fragment packets created from the same IPv6 packet must contain the same Identification field value.
Fragmentation of IPv6 packets can occur when the upper-layer protocol of the sending host submits a packet to IPv6 that is larger than the path MTU to the destination. An example of IPv6 fragmentation is when a UDP application that is not aware of a path MTU sends large packets to a destination.
IPv6 packets sent to IPv4 destinations that undergo IPv6-to-IPv4 header translation might receive a path MTU update of less than 1280. In this case, the sending host sends IPv6 packets with a Fragment header in which the Fragment Offset field is set to 0 and the More Fragments flag is not set, and with a smaller payload size of 1272 bytes. The Fragment header is included so that the IPv6-to-IPv4 translator can use the Identification field in the Fragment header to perform IPv4 fragmentation to reach the IPv4 destination.
IPv6 Reassembly Process
The fragment packets are forwarded by the intermediate IPv6 router or routers to the destination IPv6 address. The fragment packets can take different paths to the destination and arrive in a different order from which they were sent. To reassemble the fragment packets into the original payload, IPv6 uses the Source Address and Destination Address fields in the IPv6 header and the Identification field in the Fragment header to group the fragments. Figure 4-16 shows the IPv6 reassembly process.
Figure 4-16 The IPv6 reassembly process.
After all the fragments arrive, the original payload length is calculated and the Payload Length field in the IPv6 header for the reassembled packet is updated. Additionally, the Next Header field of the last header of the unfragmentable part is set to the Next Header field of the Fragment header of the first fragment.
RFC 2460 recommends a reassembly time of 60 seconds before abandoning reassembly and discarding the partially reassembled packet. If the first fragment has arrived and reassembly has not completed, the reassembling host sends an ICMPv6 Time Exceeded-Fragment Reassembly Time Exceeded message to the source of the fragment.
The Authentication header provides data authentication (verification of the node that sent the packet), data integrity (verification that the data was not modified in transit), and anti-replay protection (assurance that captured packets cannot be retransmitted and accepted as valid data) for the IPv6 packet, including the fields in the IPv6 header that do not change in transit across an IPv6 internetwork. The Authentication header, described in RFC 4302, is part of the security architecture for IP, as defined in RFC 4301. The Authentication header is identified by the value of 51 in the previous header’s Next Header field. Figure 4-17 shows the structure of the Authentication header.
Figure 4-17 The structure of the Authentication header.
The Authentication header contains a Next Header field, a Payload Length field (the number of 4-byte blocks in the Authentication header, not counting the first two), a Reserved field, a Security Parameters Index (SPI) field that helps identify a specific IP Security (IPsec) security association (SA), a Sequence Number field that provides anti-replay protection, and an Authentication Data field that contains an integrity value check (ICV). The ICV provides data authentication and data integrity.
The Authentication header does not provide data confidentiality services for the upper-layer PDU by encrypting the data so that it cannot be viewed without the encryption key. To obtain data authentication and data integrity for the entire IPv6 packet and data confidentiality for the upper-layer PDU, you can use both the Authentication header and the Encapsulating Security Payload header and trailer.
Encapsulating Security Payload Header and Trailer
The Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) header and trailer, described in RFC 4303, provide data confidentiality, data authentication, data integrity, and replay protection services to the encapsulated payload. The ESP header provides no security services for the IPv6 header or extension headers that occur before the ESP header. The ESP header and trailer are identified by the value of 50 in the previous header’s Next Header field. Figure 4-18 shows the structure of the ESP header and trailer.
Figure 4-18 The structure of the ESP header and trailer.
The ESP header contains an SPI field that helps identify the IPsec SA, and a Sequence Number field that provides anti-replay protection. The ESP trailer contains the Padding, Padding Length, Next Header, and Authentication Data fields. The Padding field is used to ensure 4-byte boundaries for the ESP payload and appropriate data-block boundaries for encryption algorithms. The Padding Length field indicates the size of the Padding field in bytes. The Authentication Data field contains the ICV.
Details about how the ESP header and trailer provide data confidentiality, authentication, and integrity through cryptographic techniques are beyond the scope of this book.